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Titled The Trew Encountre this

The term gazette was to become common among later newspapers sold commercially. The French businessman Charles Havas had begun this development in by turning a translation company into an agency offering the French press translated items from the chief European papers. Motoyama took full control of the Mainichi in and three years later added the Tokyo Nichi-Nichi to his publishing empire. In the South newspapers helped in rebuilding civic consciousness after the desolation of the Civil War through the efforts of men like Henry W.

In its independent form, the newspaper is usually integral to the development of democracy. But the commercial advantage of owning newspaper chains soon became obvious, as it allowed newsprint to be bought on favourable terms and syndicated articles to be used to the fullest. Arrests of journalists and the suppression of newspapers were common in the s, but several giants of contemporary Japanese journalism nevertheless originated during the decade. The London Times demonstrated the value of journalistic objectivity and the need to criticize governments if hard-won rights were to be preserved.

Later in the century the British press began to adapt to the demand for less exacting reading matter. Thereafter, some degree of independence has followed. In the New York Herald was founded as the first American newspaper to proclaim and to maintain complete political independence.

Titled The Trew Encountre, this four-leaved pamphlet gave an eyewitness account of the battle together with a list of the English heroes involved. But this literary slant to French newspapers, which persists to some degree in the modern era, could not disguise their paucity of hard news. Linotype keyboard operators could set copy six times faster than the hand compositor. The teeming immigrant population of New York City was the seedbed for several of the newspapers that were to shape the character of modern journalism.

But this literary slant

The Telegraph, however, differed greatly from the more colourful New York papers. Two years later the Tokyo Nichi-Nichi appeared as one of the first truly modern Japanese newspapers, although it regarded itself as virtually an official gazette.